The 7th lecture in the series “Cyprus Cartography”, entitled “Cyprus 1542: The great map of the island by Leonida Attar” was delivered in October 2003. The large scale map of Cyprus (139 × 64 cm), coloured with the use of the aquarelle technique was drawn in 1542 by Cypriot Leonida Attar. Attar was appointed by the Venetian authorities as a specialist in irrigation works and military fortifications, which he undertook together with Michelle and Girolamo Sanmicheli in both Venice and Cyprus. At the same time, he acquired technical knowledge and experience in drawing maps. The map remained hidden in the archives of Venice from the 16th century onwards, most likely for strategic and military reasons, and was practically unknown until a few years ago. The discovery and study of the map by the authors has demonstrated its importance as a primary source for cartography and the history of Cyprus.