The continuing attraction of thalassaemia is due to the fact that it contains a broad spectrum of scientific areas, from molecular biology and genetics to clinical medicine. Thalassaemia disorders pose serious public health problems met in every country of this world. Parts of this book have been rewritten. It was considered necessary to carry out these adjustments to bring out certain data up to date. The addition of a new chapter (Appendix I) gives more inside information about a continuous threat to a thalassaemic’s well-being: with better understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders, more rational approaches to prevention and treatment have been developed. Appendix II was written in order to give Cypriots the evidence available that would inform them about their ancestors and their genetic background.